Their plans would allow “missions on a greater scale, over a larger radius, with greater fighting strength and extending over a longer period of time", combined with the ability to conduct “robust preventive missions, possibly anywhere in the world".
A supranational EU emergency body (“EU Defense Council”), outwith national control – read democratic control - would preside over the planned wars and direct military as well as civilian-military measures in all EU member states. War preparations and conduct of wars are to be led by a triumvirate (“trirektoir”) of German, French and British military who would completely control the troops and arsenals of the other member states.
Here is a few of the main points
“A European Strategic Concept would represent a new departure in transnational security thinking and organisation, because it would meld into a single conceptual framework national, civil and military, as well as offensive and defensive security and defence efforts. (...)”
”Military missions implied by the European Security Strategy suggest the need for European armed forces to operate progressively higher up the conflict intensity scale from defence diplomacy at one end through to robust preventive missions, possibly anywhere in the world.”
”An EU Security Council (EUSC) should be established incorporating the Political and Security Committee (PSC)…During a crisis, the Council will retain overall strategic direction, with control of EU operations under the EUSC.”
“Embedded within the EU Homeland Security Agency should be an EU Counter-Terrorism Intelligence Agency (EUCTIA). The developing civil/military structures within the EU Military Staff should provide the basis for the development of such an Agency.”
“Strategic ESDP missions will be organised through coalitions of the willing and able. The EU itself should progressively assume the responsibilities of a coalition leader”.
”The EU needs a force of at least 10,000 ‘European Gendarmes’ directly answerable to it”.
- The EU must also explore the feasibility of legally requisitioning ships of member-states for service during a time of crisis by adapting European law to enable the use of ships under flag to EU member-states.
- An EU Joint Intelligence Committee (EJIC) working directly into the office of the EU Security Minister will help to co-ordinate and safeguard shared intelligence, staffed by national intelligence officers who will process and evaluate raw intelligence, supported by national intelligence agencies.
The European common defence market, supported by a common Research & Technology budget and co-ordinated through a strong European Defence Agency (EDA) would undoubtedly improve cost-effectiveness for European armed forces undergoing transformation.
- The need for a single European defence market is self-evident. If the US follows a ‘Buy American First’ strategy, the EU must adopt a ‘Buy European First’ strategy to safeguard procurement for European armed forces. Securing Europe’s autonomous supply of advanced military technology and equipment (and its re-supply) is a pre-requisite for a strategic ESDP. However, it may be cheaper on occasions to buy American, particularly if they alone have the technology required.
If the trirectoire will lead EU military coalitions on the behalf of the EU, BAe Systems, EADS and Thales should evolve into a European defence-industrial trirectoire as prime contractors that can lead procurement projects under the aegis of the EDA.
“At least 10% of respective national defence budgets must be earmarked”
The Role of Anglo-French Nuclear Forces
“Although Anglo-French nuclear forces have no formal ESDP role they afford a de facto extended deterrence to all EU and NATO partners, even though neither London nor Paris would be willing to admit as much. In time it may be that the role of these forces might have to be formalised within an EU framework as they are within the NATO framework. Again, given the current strategic environment it will clearly not be for some time yet, but it is an issue that is unlikely to be avoided indefinitely”.
The Venusberg Group Reports
The Venusberg Group is a high-level network of security and defence experts from across Europe brought together by the Bertelsmann Foundation in Guetersloh and the Bertelsmann Group for Policy Research at the Center for Applied Policy Research (CAP), University of Munich, to examine the future of EU security policy. The Group was formed in early 1999 following a meeting that took place at a hotel on the Venusberg near Bonn, close to the Petersberg where in 1992 European leaders established the basis for EU defence.
The members of the 2004 core group are Franco Algieri, Thomas Bauer and Janis Emmanouilidis, all Center for Applied Policy Research, Munich; Yves Boyer, Fondation pour la Recherche Stratégique, Paris; Tuomas Forsberg, George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies, Garmisch-Partenkirchen; Julian Lindley-French, Geneva Centre for Security Studies, Geneva; Stefani Weiss, Bertelsmann Foundation, Guetersloh; Rob de Wijk, Clingendael Centre for Strategic Studies, The Hague.